"Application of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex Ultra SP-L in Carrot Juice Processing."
Science and Technology of Food Industry, 9, 62-63 (2003)
In this paper the effects of Pectinase on quality of carrot juice were studied. It was found that pectinase treatment can not only improve the juice yield but also enhance total carotene content in the juice without harming the cloudy stability of juice. The juice yield can be improved by 15% and total carotene content in the juice can be enhanced by 1.8 times.
E.H. Hansen; L. Albertsen; T. Schaefer; C. Johansen; J.C. Frisvad; S. Molin; L. Gram.
"Curvularia haloperoxidase: antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant".
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 4611-4617 (2003)
A presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds.The Curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus epidermidis,and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergill us niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S. epidermidis cells adhering to contact lenses were reduced from 4.0 and 4.9 log CFU to 1.2 and 2.7 log CFU, respectively, after treatment with the Curvularia haloperoxidase system. The killing effect of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system was rapid, and 106 CFU of E. coli cells/ml were eliminated within 10 min of treatment. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect was short lived, causing no antibacterial effect against E. coli 10 min after the system was mixed. Bovine serum albumin (1%) and alginate (1%) inhibited the antimicrobial activity of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, whereas glucose and Tween 20 did not affect its activity. In conclusion, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system is an effective sanitizing system and has the potential for a vast range of applications, for instance, for disinfection of contact lenses or medical devices.
T. SchSfer; O. Kirk; T.V. Borchert; C.C. Fuglsang; S. Pedersen; S. Salmon; H.S. Olsen; R. Deinhammer; H. Lund.
"Enzymes for Technical Applications"
In: Biopolymers, Chapter 13, pp. 377-437, Wiley VCH
Editor: Fahnestock, S.R. Steinbüchel, A, (2002)
Enzymes are major contributors to clean industrial products and processes. They show a variety of advantages over chemicals, e.g. their specificity, their high efficiency and their compatibility with the environment. Enzymes can be produced from renewable resources and are in turn degraded by microbes in the nature. Various industries have replaced old processes using chemicals that cause detrimental effects on the environment. The technical applications of enzymes are reviewed and key technologies for their discovery and optimization briefly described.
O. Kirk; T.V. Borchert; C.C. Fuglsang.
"Industrial enzyme applications."
Current Opinion Biotechnology, 13, 345-351 (2002)
The effective catalytic properties of enzymes have already promoted their introduction into several industrial products and processes. Recent developments in biotechnology, particularly in areas such as protein engineering and directed evolution, have provided important tools for the efficient development of new enzymes. This has resulted in the development of enzymes with improved properties for established technical applications and in the production of new enzymes tailor-made for entirely new areas of application where enzymes have not previously been used.
X. Qing; H. Zhangxi.
"Detergent enzyme application handbook"
version 2. Published by the Chinese Light Industry Press and Novozymes (2002)
Basic concepts about enzymes and enzyme application in detergent are introduced focusing on the different enzyme classes. Methods for enzyme analysi s are also introduced.
C. Boisset; C. Petrequin; H. Chanzy; B. Henrissat; M. Schulein.
"Optimized mixtures of recombinant Humicola insolens cellulases for the biodegradation of crystalline cellulose."
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 72(3), 339-345 (2001)
The digestion of bacterial cellulose ribbons by ternary mixtures of enzymes consisting of recombinant cellulases (two cellobiohydrolases, Cel6A and Cel7A, and the endoglucanase Ce145A) from Humicola insolens was investigated over a wide range of mixture composition. The extent of digestion was followed by soluble sugar release (saccharification) analysis together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. It was found that the addition of minute quantities of Ce145A induced a spectacular increase in saccharification of the substrate with either Cel7A or the mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Conversely, only a moderate saccharification resulted from the mixing of Ce145A and Cel6A. This difference is believed to originate from (1) the occasional endo character of Cel6A and (2) the competition of Cel6A and Ce145A for the substrate sites that are sensitive to endo activity. Interestingly, the mixture of enzymes giving rise to the highest saccharification rate did not always correspond to mixtures of enzymes generating the highest synergy. TEM images revealed that the bacterial cellulose ribbons became at the same time cut and narrowed down under the action of an optimized mixture of the three enzymes. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
G. Jing; W. Yongjun.
"The application of local staining starch tablet in industrial a-amylase activity analysis in Detergent & Cosmetics".
Daily Chemical Science, 23(6), 39-40 (2000)
To reduce the cost of amylase activity analysis, we want to develop a method to analyze industrial alpha-amylase activity by using local red staining amylase tablets. It was made of bi-functional group active staining M-8B combined with potato starch through covalent bond. We developed a new method by using the tablets as the substrate to simplify the Phadebas method, the precision and the accuracy can satisfied the requirement of the customer. All the data are from Novozymes Beijing Laboratory.
F. Xu; K.M. Brown; L. Dybdal; T.M. Forman; C.C. Fuglsang; P. Wagner, P.
"Controlled stepwise reduction of disulfide bonds and heat-induced modification of wheat dough proteins."
Cereal Chem., 76, 931-937 (1999)
A reducing solution of 2-mercaptoethanol and its oxidized form 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide, whose variable concentrations set variable disulfide reduction potentials, was applied to progressively reduce the disulfide bonds of proteins extracted from doughs made from Meneba and Robin Hood flour. Several dough proteins had disulfide bonds stronger than those of other dough proteins. A SDS-sedimentation method was applied to monitor the baking of dough into bread. Dough proteins suscept ible to heat (baking) were studied by SDS- fractionation, extraction with reducing alcoholic solution, SDS-PAGE, and N-terminal protein sequencing. High or low molecular weight glutenins, alpha, beta, and gamma-gliadins, alpha-amylase inhibitor, and alpha-amylase trypsin inhibitor were identified among the dough proteins modified by heat (as shown by reduced solubility in aqueous-SDS solution). The heat-induced modification of the gliadins and glutenins might contribute to the coagulation of dough proteins, while the heat-induced modification of the amylase or trypsin inhibitors might contribute to the regulation of endogenous or exogenous amylolytic or proteolytic activities in dough or bread.
H.S.Olsen; P. Falholt.
"The Role of Enzymes in Modern Detergency"
J. Surf. Det., 1(44), 555-567 (1998)
Enzymes have effectively assisted the development and improvement of modern household and industrial detergents. The major classes of detergent enzymes -- proteases, lipases, amylases and cellulases - each provide specific benefits for application in laundry and automatic dishwashing. Historically, proteases were first to be used extensively in laundry detergents. In addition to raising the level of cleaning they have also provided environmental benefits by reducing energy consumption through shorter washing times, lower washing temperatures, and reduced water consumption. Today proteases are joined by lipases and amylases in improving detergent efficacy especially for household laundering at lower temperatures and, in industrial cleaning operations, at lower pH levels. Cellulases contribute to overall fab ric care by rejuvenating or maintaining the new appearance of washed garments. Enzymes are produced by fermentation technologies that utilize renewable resources.
C.C. Fuglsang; C. Johansen; S. Christgau; J. Adler-Nissen.
"Antimicrobial enzymes: Application and future potential in the food industry."
Trends. Food. Sci. Technol., 6, 390-396 (1995)
Antimicrobial enzymes are ubiquitous in nature, playing a significant role in the defense mechanisms of living organisms against infection by bacteria and fungi. Hydrolytic antimicrobial enzymes function by degrading key structural components of the cell walls of bacteria and/or fungi, whereas antimicrobial oxidoreductases exert their effects by the generation in situ of reactive molecules. The potential of these enzymes in food preservation is still far from realized at present.