Dybdahl Hede, P.D., Bach, P., Jensen, A.D.
"Two-fluid spray atomisation and pneumatic nozzles for fluid bed coating/agglomeration purposes: A review"
Chemical Engineering Science, . Article in Press. (2008)


In fluid bed processing in the chemical, food or pharmaceutical industries, pneumatic nozzles are typically used to convert binder or coating liquids into droplets. Producing fine droplets from liquids in a gas phase is termed atomisation, and it involves complex phenomena which are not yet fully understood. This paper provides a systematic and up-to-date review of two-fluid nozzle designs and principles together with a presentation of nozzle fundamentals introducing basic nozzle theory and thermodynamics. Correlations for the prediction of mean droplet diameters are reviewed, compared and accompanied by a discussion of their use. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Decker, S.R., Teter, S.
"Introduction to Session 2: Enzyme Catalysis and Engineering"
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, pp. 1-2. Article in Press. (2008)

Tomlinson, E., Palaniyappan, N., Tooth, D., Layfield, R.
"Methods for the purification of ubiquitinated proteins"
Proteomics, 7 (7), pp. 1016-1022. (2007)


Post-translational protein modification by the covalent conjugation of ubiquitin, originally implicated as a signal for proteolytic degradation by 26S proteasome, has now been realised to play important roles in the regulation of almost all biological processes in eukaryotes. In order to understand these processes in greater detail there is a requirement for techniques that can purify mixtures of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, as a prerequisite to their identification and characterisation. Here we review the methods that have been applied to the bulk purification of ubiquitinated proteins and discuss their applications in proteomic analyses of the 'ubiquitome'. © 2007 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Roggen, E.L.
"Recent developments with B-cell epitope identification for predictive studies"
Journal of Immunotoxicology, 3 (3), pp. 137-149. (2006)


This review discusses currently available methods for predicting B-cell epitopes on proteins. The use of animals for assessing protein immunogenicity is addressed primarily to highlight the differences in B- and T-cell epitope recognition between species. These differences have to be considered when interpreting potential B-cell epitopes identified by the methods addressed here. "In vitro alternatives" focuses on the strengths and limitations of peptide-based technologies. Three types of computer-based methods for identifying potential B-cell epitopes are discussed: (i) methods applying physico-chemical and structural propensity scales for predicting linear epitopes from the primary structure of a protein, (ii) comparative methods basing prediction upon amino acid sequence and structural similarities between antigenically known and unknown proteins, and (iii) a method combining structural features with a B-cell epitope motif database for predicting linear and conformational antigenic determinants. With respect to human safety, the usefulness of antibody-based tests is limited to comparative studies between an antigenically known protein and variants thereof. Similarly, computer-based methods using data mining can address similarities in B-cell epitope profiles between related proteins, if a proper cut off can be defined for the minimal amino acid sequence similarity required for obtaining an acceptable accuracy. Among the physico-chemical and structural scales, scales identifying in a protein hairpin and non-specific turns seem useful for predicting epitopes with a continuous primary binding site. When conformational epitopes have to be identified as well, a novel computer-based tool seems to be the most promising alternative to X-ray crystallography. However, both methods remain to be extensively evaluated and validated. Thus, promising tools for B-cell epitope identification have been developed. But, no validated method for B-cell epitope identification on antigenically unknown proteins is available yet. Copyright © Informa Healthcare.

Larsen, K., Thygesen, M.B., Guillaumie, F., Willats, W.G.T., Jensen, K.J.
"Solid-phase chemical tools for glycobiology"
Carbohydrate Research, 341 (10), pp. 1209-1234. (2006)


Techniques involving solid supports have played crucial roles in the development of genomics, proteomics, and in molecular biology in general. Simularly, methods for immobilization or attachment to surfaces and resins have become ubiquitous in sequencing, synthesis, analysis, and screening of oligonucleotides, peptides, and proteins. However, solid-phase tools have been employed to a much lesser extent in glycobiology and glycomics. This review provides a comprehensive overview of solid-phase chemical tools for glycobiology including methodologies and applications. We provide a broad perspective of different approaches, including some well-established ones, such as immobilization in microtiter plates and to cross-linked polymers. Emerging areas such as glycan microarrays and glycan sequencing, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles for nanobioscience applications are also discussed. The applications reviewed here include enzymology, immunology, elucidation of biosynthesis, and systems biology, as well as first steps toward solid-supported sequencing. From these methods and applications emerge a general vision for the use of solid-phase chemical tools in glycobiology. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nedwin, G.E., Schaefer, T., Falholt, P.E.R.
"Enzyme discovery screening, cloning, evolving"
Chemical Engineering Progress, 101 (10), pp. 48-55. (2005)

C. M. Hjort
"Production of food additives using filamentous fungi"
In Genetically engineered food, edited by K. J. Heller, Wiley-VCH (2003).

M. E. Bjørnvad; T. V. Borchert; S. Ernst.
"Optimering af Proteiners Funktion"
Dansk Kemi, 84 (11), 15-18 2003.

Schafer T., Borchert T. V.
"Prospecting for Industrial Enzymes - The Importance of Integrated Technology Platforms"
In: Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting, ASM, in press Editor: A. Bull

H. Outtrup;, S.T. Jørgensen.
"The Importance of Bacillus species in the Production of Industrial Enzymes".
in Berkeley, R., Heyndrickx, M. Logan, N. and De Vos, P (eds.) Applications and Systematics of Bacillus and Relatives, Chapter 14, pp. 206-218, Blackwell Science Ltd.